o-Vanillin derived Schiff Bases and their Organotin(IV) Compounds: Synthesis, structural characterisation, in-Silico studies and cytotoxicity

Enis Nadia Md Yusof, and Muhammad, A. M. Latiff and Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed Tahir and Sakoff, Jennette A and Simone, Michela I and Page, Alister J and Veerakumarasivam, Abhi and Tiekink, Edward R. T. * and Ravoof, Thahira Begum S. A. (2019) o-Vanillin derived Schiff Bases and their Organotin(IV) Compounds: Synthesis, structural characterisation, in-Silico studies and cytotoxicity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20 (4). pp. 854-888. ISSN 1422-0067

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040854

Abstract

Six new organotin(IV) compounds of Schiff bases derived from S-R-dithiocarbazate [R = benzyl (B), 2- or 4-methylbenzyl (2M and 4M, respectively)] condensed with 2-hydroxy-3- methoxybenzaldehyde (oVa) were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, various spectroscopic techniques including infrared, UV-vis, multinuclear (1H, 13C, 119Sn) NMR and mass spectrometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The organotin(IV) compounds were synthesised from the reaction of Ph2SnCl2 or Me2SnCl2 with the Schiff bases (S2MoVaH/S4MoVaH/SBoVaH) to form a total of six new organotin(IV) compounds that had a general formula of [R2Sn(L)] (where L = Schiff base; R = Ph or Me). The molecular geometries of Me2Sn(S2MoVa), Me2Sn(S4MoVa) and Me2Sn(SBoVa) were established by X-ray crystallography and verified using density functional theory calculations. Interestingly, each experimental structure contained two independent but chemically similar molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The coordination geometry for each molecule was defined by thiolate-sulphur, phenoxide-oxygen and imine-nitrogen atoms derived from a dinegative, tridentate dithiocarbazate ligand with the remaining positions occupied by the methyl-carbon atoms of the organo groups. In each case, the resulting five-coordinate C2NOS geometry was almost exactly intermediate between ideal trigonal-bipyramidal and squarepyramidal geometries. The cytotoxic activities of the Schiff bases and organotin(IV) compounds were investigated against EJ-28 and RT-112 (bladder), HT29 (colon), U87 and SJ-G2 (glioblastoma), MCF-7 (breast) A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), DU145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma) Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 854 2 of 34 and MIA (pancreatic) cancer cell lines and one normal breast cell line (MCF-10A). Diphenyltin(IV) compounds exhibited greater potency than either the Schiff bases or the respective dimethyltin(IV) compounds. Mechanistic studies on the action of these compounds against bladder cancer cells revealed that they induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The bladder cancer cells were apoptotic after 24 h post-treatment with the diphenyltin(IV) compounds. The interactions of the organotin(IV) compounds with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were experimentally explored using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. This study revealed that the organotin(IV) compounds have strong DNA binding affinity, verified via molecular docking simulations, which suggests that these organotin(IV) compounds interact with DNA via groove-binding interactions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: tridentate ONS Schiff bases; organotin(IV); dithiocarbazate; five-coordinate compounds; single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis; cytotoxic activity; mechanistic studies; molecular docking
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Sunway University > School of Science and Technology > Dept. Biological Sciences
Sunway University > School of Science and Technology > Research Centre for Crystalline Materials
Depositing User: Dr Janaki Sinnasamy
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2019 08:19
Last Modified: 13 May 2019 09:12
URI: http://eprints.sunway.edu.my/id/eprint/997

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