Development of multi-epitope peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2

Lim, Hui Xuan * and Lim, Jian Hua * and Jazayeri, S. D. * and Poppema, Sibrandes * and Poh, Chit Laa * (2020) Development of multi-epitope peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Biomedical Journal, 44 (1). pp. 18-30. ISSN 2319-4170

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic involving so far more than 15 million infections and 630,211 deaths. Effective vaccines are urgently needed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections. No vaccines have yet been approved for licensure by regulatory agencies. Even though host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections are beginning to be unravelled, effective clearance of virus will depend on both humoral and cellular immunity. Additionally, the presence of Spike (S)-glycoprotein reactive CD4+ T-cells in the majority of convalescent patients is consistent with its significant role in stimulating B and CD8+ T-cells. The search for immunodominant epitopes relies on experimental evaluation of peptides representing the epitopes from overlapping peptide libraries which can be costly and labor-intensive. Recent advancements in B- and T-cell epitope predictions by bioinformatic analysis have led to epitope identifications. Assessing which peptide epitope can induce potent neutralizing antibodies and robust T-cell responses is a prerequisite for the selection of effective epitopes to be incorporated in peptide-based vaccines. This review discusses the roles of B- and T-cells in SARS-CoV-2 infections and experimental validations for the selection of B-, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes which could lead to the construction of a multi-epitope peptide vaccine. Peptide-based vaccines are known for their low immunogenicity which could be overcome by incorporating immunostimulatory adjuvants and nanoparticles such as Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) or chitosan.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CD4+ T-cell; CD8+ T-cell; B-cell; Epitopes
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
Divisions: General > Directorate
Sunway University > School of Engineering and Technology [formerly School of Science and Technology until 2020] > Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research moved to SMLS wef 2021
Depositing User: Dr Janaki Sinnasamy
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2020 03:51
Last Modified: 28 May 2021 06:20

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